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national security establishment whose worst nightmares include the collapse of the Pakistani state — with all its implications for empowerment of terrorists, a regional explosion of violent extremism, war with India, and loss of control over the country’s nuclear weapons.
So if we argue that nuclear weapons help maintain Pakistan’s integrity as a state — by empowering and cohering the Pakistani Army — they may at the same time undermine regional stability and security by making regional war more likely.
Worryingly, rather than pursuing a policy of minimal deterrence along Indian lines, Pakistan’s military leaders are banking on the future benefits of nuclear weapons by overseeing the proportionately biggest nuclear buildup of any power, developing tactical (battlefield) nuclear weapons, and dispersing the nuclear arsenal to ensure its survivability in the event of attack by either the United States or India.
(Note that most Pakistanis identify the United States, not India, as their country’s primary adversary, despite an alliance dating to 1954 and nearly billion in American assistance since 2001.) The nuclear arsenal sustains Pakistan’s unbalanced internal power structure, underwriting Army dominance over elected politicians and neutering civilian control of national security policy; civilian leaders have no practical authority over Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program.
Unfortunately, many of these same parents have little or no idea of what is happening to their children once they pass through the classroom door.
We have received calls from parents expressing their dismay and asking what can be done. schools — middle schools, high schools and colleges.
Under the Federal Equal Access Act of 1984, as long as schools allow the formation of clubs, they cannot disallow the creation of GSA’s. The Alliances are student-initiated and student-run clubs in mostly public schools whose stated mission “is to provide a safe, supportive environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ) and straight ally youth to meet and discuss sexual orientation and gender identity issues, and to work to create a school environment free of discrimination, harassment, and intolerance.” Certainly, everyone is in favor of safe schools.
Whether one believes the arsenal’s governance implications generate stability or instability within Pakistan depends on whether one believes that Army domination of the country is a stabilizing or destabilizing factor.
A similarly split opinion derives from whether one deems the Pakistan Army the country’s most competent institution and therefore the best steward of weapons whose fall into the wrong hands could lead to global crisis — or whether one views the Army’s history of reckless risk-taking, from sponsoring terrorist attacks against the United States and India to launching multiple wars against India that it had no hope of winning, as a flashing "DANGER" sign suggesting that nuclear weapons are far more likely to be used "rationally" by the armed forces in pursuit of Pakistan’s traditional policies of keeping its neighbors off balance.